Jan 19, 2011

Posted by in Crop Circles, Featured, Need to Know, Uncategorized | 5 Comments

Dr. John Horn, M.D., submitted this paper to CCRF. THANK YOU, Dr. Horn, for this contribution!

CCRF is posting this excellent review of previous research which has been carried out on the “Genuine” Crop Circles over the past years, written by Dr. John Horn, M.D. from Kentucky. If you will read Dr. Horn’s review, you will no longer think of all Crop Circles as human generated hoaxes that do not warrant your attention. You will realize that you are not alone, and that there are many other very bright individuals who are now paying attention to these miraculous summer crop season events. You will realize just how important it is that we follow this Phenomenon to its origin, for therein we will discover some truths which will send our world in a new and positive direction.

(As an addendum to Dr. Horn’s review, I would like to direct your attention to the BLT Research Team and their excellent website at http:/www.bltresearch.com. Nancy Talbott, William C. Levengood, and the BLT Research Team have sacrificed enormous amounts of their time, energy, and personal bank accounts in a scientifically based approach to their research of the Crop Circles. BLT is responsible for essentially all of the peer-reviewed and published scientific work that has been done to date in Crop Circle research, and we all are indebted to Nancy Talbott and the BLT team for their persistent efforts in search of the truth behind the extraordinary Crop Circle Phenomenon. Please visit the BLT website and please consider extending to BLT any financial support you may be able to provide. They need your help to carry on with this very important work! – RKO)


The Scientific Investigation of Crop Circles
by John Horn, M.D.

As a boy I was fascinated with science and nature. I had chemistry sets, a microscope, and a telescope that I prized because I sold greeting cards door to door to get it. I collected rocks and fossils. During the summers I delighted in catching lizards, turtles and insects. I graduated from a large mid-western high school co-valedictorian in 1976. I got a BS degree in zoology from the University of Arkansas in 1980, and then went on to medical school. I have practiced internal medicine now for 22 years in a small town in central Kentucky.

In 1990, while browsing for a good book in the science section of Joseph-Beth bookstore in Lexington, Kentucky, I came across a book entitled Circular Evidence – the first book ever written about the phenomenon of crop circles. It had been co-authored by Colin Andrews – an electrical engineer; and Pat Delgado – an electromechanical design engineer who had formerly worked for NASA. I found it to be extremely intriguing. Even though the formations they studied from the years 1983 – 1989 were simple designs, upon close examination, they discovered that these simple designs contained some surprising hidden mathematical and geometric relationships. Furthermore, Andrews and Delgado could never find clear evidence that these crop circles were made by human beings. For example, sometimes these crop circles would occur in the middle of fields which had no tramlines; no tracks except for their own could be found leading into or out of the formations. Further scientific scrutiny followed with DR. Terence Meaden’s book entitled The Circles Effect and its Mysteries which was published in 1989. Dr. Meaden held a PhD in physics from Oxford University. He also concluded that crop circles were not made by human hoaxers, helicopters, or secret military aircraft; and there were not made by any then understood physics of whirlwind vortices. He worked diligently on the theory that they were formed by atmospheric vortices never before encountered or described by science. In a manner of just a few years though, this theory had to be discarded as crop circle formations began to show counter – rotating bands of flow, straight lines, and boxes, all of which shattered the possibility of Dr. Meaden’s “atmospheric vortices” theory.

Since then, the scientific investigation of the crop circles phenomenon has continued thanks to some very bright people who have been able to approach it with objectivity and intellectual honesty. Unfortunately, the scientific facts are largely unknown and unacknowledged by the general populace as the “powers that be” (and their proxies of “mass media”) have seemingly colluded to debunk and dis-inform the world about this genuine phenomenon. Also quite unfortunately, the scientific investigation is somewhat limited and has not been carried out by any mainstream academic institutions that seem constrained by the current scientific paradigm and current political correctness of academia.

In the years since 1990, I have acquired most of the books and documentary DVDs on the subject of crop circles. I have become obsessed to discover the truth about the crop circles. I want to understand both their origin as well as their meaning. In 2007, and again in 2009, I travelled to Wiltshire, England (the geographic focus of the crop circle formation phenomenon) to investigate for myself. These visits confirmed to me the anomalous nature, and the authenticity of this phenomenon.

Unequivocally, the scientific evidence to date reveals that GENUINE crop circle formations are not being made by people through any means of mechanical flattening (nor by human beings using any currently available human technology!). At this point, let me state up front that complex crop art can be made by skilled teams of human hoaxers. Yet, to be clear, though human made crop art is real, it does not equate to the GENUINE crop circle formations. Recent evidence has come to light that the primary teams of people involved in creating complex crop art are funded by the British Intelligence agency MI5 as a program of public disinformation. This evidence has been well substantiated in Richard Hall’s recent documentary Crop Circles – The Hidden Truth.

So what is the scientific evidence that separates the GENUINE crop circle formation from a human created crop art? In general, the scientific evidence fits in the following categories:

1) Mathematical and geometrical analysis
2) Physical changes to the affected plants
3) Seed germination anomalies within crop formation plants
4) Soil anomalies from within crop circle formations
5) Magnetic field anomalies detected from within formations

Before covering these lines of evidence, I would refer the reader to an excellent website, www.cropcirclewisdom.com which provides links to the major researchers and their posted research upon specific websites.

For me, some of the most compelling evidence for a non-human origin of crop circle formations exists in the mathematical and geometric analysis. In the early 1980s, Gerald Hawkins, then professor of mathematics and astronomy at Boston University was challenged to prove or disprove the human origin of crop circle formations. His analysis of 18 early formations revealed the surprising finding that many of the circular elements were related to one another by “diatonic” ratios. Their proportions to each other were equivalent to the ratios of frequencies of the adjacent white keys of a piano keyboard. Such a result could certainly not occur by chance. It seems extremely unlikely that human hoaxers would have encoded such hidden mathematical proportions in a hastily produced crop circle formation over a few hour period in the dark of night. Hawkins was astonished by this finding. He began a more in depth analysis of formations and ultimately discovered five new theorems of Euclidean geometry which had never before been published in any textbooks of geometry, ancient or modern! In Hawkins own words he concluded,

“Crop Circles are a phenomenon of the end of the 20th century and the media were all opting for hoaxers as the cause, so I decided to investigate the hoax theory. I have a fairly broad background in astronomy, mathematics, physics, and radio astronomy, but even more fortunately – as you will see – I am my wife’s harp tuner…My approach was to study the intellectual profile behind the patterns, as it turned out to be an even greater mystery than the mechanics of how they are formed. I was not very successful in proving the hoax theory; however, I made some important discoveries along the way. I found the circles contained musical information, new mathematics, and even a code which, by statistical analysis, has confidence level of intentionality. The circle sizes gave numbers which matched diatonic rations, which are the step ups in pitch of the white notes of the piano…I have proved that crop circles can’t be a natural phenomenon like whirlwinds, lightning, or unguided plasmas. Furthermore, the intellectual profile is unique, touching the history of mathematics from Euclid to fractals and music from Pythagoras to English church bells. If the phenomenon is transcendental, our culture is not currently prepared to face such a possibility; but if it is transcendental, then future society is in for a profound shock.”

For the mathematically minded and curious, Dr. Hawkin’s description of the newly discovered theorems was published in an article titled, Probing the Mystery of Those Eerie Crop Circles in Cosmos Journal vol. 1, no. 2, pages 22-28, 1992. It was also published in Crop Circles: Theorems in Wheat Fields, Science News, vol. 150, no. 12 (October 1996), page 239.

Another examination of the mathematics of crop formations is contained in a book by mathematician Nick Kollerstrom titled Crop Circles, The Hidden Form, published in 2005. In this book Kollerstorm shows how early crop circle quintuplets (a large central circle surrounded by a square of four smaller satellite circles) demonstrated an exact solution to the age-old geometric conundrum of “squaring the circle”. This geometric problem sought to construct a square on a circle whose perimeter is exactly equal to the circumference of the circle using only a compass and straight edge. Kollerstrom also examines many of the complex fractal patterns that appeared in the mid to late 90’s. As further evidence of the non-human origin of crop circle formations, he examines a complex formation in Aldbourne, Wiltshire appearing on July 24, 2005 that demonstrated a previously unheard-of manner of constructing parabola.

Bert Jannssen, a Dutch geometer has an excellent website that can also be accessed through www.cropcirclewisdom.com. Jannssen has the amazing ability to reconstruct on paper the geometric steps required to make the most complex formations. One of his startling discoveries relating to the construction of genuine formations is in regards to so-called “construction lines” and “construction points”. In his book, The Hypnotic Power of Crop Circles (2004), he shows how certain geometric construction lines and points that are required to lay out the formations are often not found on the ground. Furthermore, these lines and points, when found on the ground often did not extend to parts of the formations which would have to have been subsequently erased on paper. It is a fairly detailed and complex argument that Jannssen makes, but in his geometric analysis of the Tawsmeade Copse crop formation of August 9, 1998, he states

“These crop circles were NOT made by humans; at least not in the traditional physical way. Human beings did not make the formations, but the (geometric) techniques that were used were based on human logic.”

My favorite crop circle formation occurred at Crooked Soley on August 27, 2002. It was a double helix of human DNA. Its design was a beautiful closed loop of the double helix of DNA 300 feet in diameter enclosing a completely undisturbed central circle of wheat approximately 150 feet in diameter. A small book titled, Crooked Soley – A Crop Circle Revelation was written about it by geometers John Michell and Alan Brown. In this book they show that there are two methods which can be used to reconstruct the formation on paper. Both methods require multiple lines and circles emanating from the center point which would be in the standing central circle of wheat. They conclude from the geometric analysis that there is no possible means for the formation to have been laid out on the ground (since the central circle of wheat is completely undisturbed). Incidentally, this formation appeared at the same time that a conference on the DNA nucleosome was being held at Cambridge University. A well-known DNA biochemist who was in attendance at the conference was so amazed by the formation and convinced of its authenticity as something of non-human origin that he has become a crop circle researcher. He is a member of the CMM Research group, but because of his academic position he has chosen to be known by the pseudonym Red Collie. Another member of the CMM Research group is the American engineer Michael Reed, who solved the meaning of the so-called pi formation of June 1, 2008. This formation which resembled a ratcheted spiral was 150 feet in diameter in young barley beneath the ancient Barbury Castle hill fort in Wiltshire, England. It depicted pi to ten digits in a graphic form never before depicted in any book of mathematics. Each arc of the ratchet represented a whole number multiple of 36 degrees of a circle. There were ten arcs followed by three closed circles indicating that I went on infinitely.

An excellent book, which examines the sacred geometry of crop formations, was published in 2009 by former professor of architecture Michael Glickman. Glickman is an icon in the world of crop circle research that I have been fortunate enough to visit as a guest at his home. I won’t discuss this book for the sake of brevity with this article, but suffice it to say that Glickman has a sharp mind and a brilliant wit. He has been lecturing about the esoteric geometry and mathematics of crop circles for more than a decade. He likes to refer to the Circle Makers as the “Sisters” with a grin as he points skyward.

Moving on from geometry and mathematics, the most obvious evidence for the anomalous origin of crop circle formations is the gross and microscopic anatomical changes to the plants within the formations as compared to the absence of the same in plants just without the formations. Most of the hard science done in this area has been done by the BLT Research group which consists of the plant biophysicist William C. Levengood, as well as the late John Burke – a businessman with a vocational interest in geomagnetic and electromagnetic theory, and Nancy Talbott, who has become the groups main field investigator and reporter. BLT Research has an excellent website ( http://www.bltresearch.com ) which contains all of their scientific peer-reviewed scientific journal articles. Their three seminal scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals are:

1) Anatomical anomalies in crop formation plants (1994)
2) Semi-Molten Meteoritic Iron Associated with a Crop Formation (1995)
3) Dispersion of energies in worldwide crop formations (1999)

A recent article, not yet published, appears on their website titled, Plant Abnormalities Indicate Plasma Discharge in 2009 UK Crop Circles. In this article, the scientific hypothesis is that a spinning plasma under intelligent control is the causative energy source of at least some crop circle formations. This finding is important since it has been felt by many that the more intricate and artistic formations of recent years are the work of evermore proficient human hoaxers. William C. Levengood, the chief scientist has published more than 50 papers in scientific journals. He was the first to scientifically document five unique changes to crop circle plants that are not found in any plants except from within crop circle formations:

1) Plant stem node elongation and bending
2) Node “expulsion” cavities – so called “blown” nodes
3) Seed germination abnormalities
4) Microscopic enlargement of cell wall pit diameter
5) Unusual crystallization of dissolved minerals within crop circle plant stems

Other studies conducted by the BLT Research group have been on soil analysis discussed in two papers regarding the unusual deposition of meteoritic iron in a formation and unexplainable crystallization of clay minerals in another.

To gross inspection, the most obvious anomaly of genuine crop circles is the fact that the plants that are flattened are bent parallel to the ground with no damage or breakage to the stems. This is most obvious in canola, also called oil seed rape. Usually the plants are bent over at the ground level, but some amazing formations have appeared in which the plants were bent horizontally two or three inches above ground level. Rare cases have been found where the plant stalks are bent horizontally at the apical node near the top of the stem – hardly something that can be replicated by any means of mechanical flattening. Plant stem bending without evidence of breakage or even scuffing of the grayish film on the stems is definitive of genuine formations. Canola, which is the first crop of the season in the fields of Wiltshire has a very brittle stem much like celery. These canola stems can be up to half an inch in diameter. These plants simply cannot be bent beyond 45 degrees before they simply snap. However, in crop formations canola is bent at 90 degrees at the base of the plant without cracking! In addition canola’s delicate yellow flowers show no damage. Frequently bundles of canola are twisted together with no breaks of the stems and no damage to any of the flowers. Plant stem node ending and elongation of crop circle plants was scientifically investigated and described in the BLT article Anatomical anomalies in Crop Formation Plants listed above. This article was published in the peer-reviewed journal Physiologica Plantarum in 1994. The authors hypothesize that part of the energy system involved in creating crop formations involves microwave radiation which heats the water in the plant stems extremely rapidly resulting in suppleness of the stems as well as causing elongation and bending of the nodes as the water vaporizes within them. Blown or exploded nodes are found more commonly in more mature crop in which the stems are drier and stiffer: instead of node bending and elongation a small hole is blown in the node similar to the way water vapor in popcorn causes the kernel to explode.

Dr. Eltjo Haselhoff, a Dutch physicist showed independently that the degree of node lengthening was in some instances directly proportional to the distance from a hypothetical point source of electromagnetic radiation. Dr. Haselhoff describes these finding in his excellent book The Deepening Complexity of Crop Circles (2001). In this book he concludes

“The true nature of the crop circle phenomenon is unknown to the general public…something very strange is going on.”

Seed germination anomalies are described in the BLT research report Cropformations: A biophysical investigation (1997). They have found that depending on the age of the plants at the time a crop formation has occurred, as well as other variables including the apparent intensity of complexity in the causative energy system, when compared to plants from the same field, the seeds:

1) do not germinate at all
2) do germinate, but exhibit grossly depressed growth of roots and shoots
3) do germinate, but exhibit seedling development inconsistent with that typical
for the species or variety
4) not only germinate, but exhibit markedly increased rate and robustness of
seedling growth rate.

As a general rule, seeds taken from plants in mature grain crops have shown increased growth rates. In some cases of crop formations in immature plants seeds failed to develop at all within the seed pods. It should be stressed that these anomalies occurred in the downed crop within formations, and did not affect the standing crop within formations! Dr. Haselhoff has also independently replicated the seed germination anomalies described by the BLT team.

Another line of investigation undertaken by the BLT Research team was an analysis of the soil from crop formations described in their report Clay-mineral Crystallization Case Study (1999). X-ray diffraction studies of soil taken from a Canadian formation were carried out due to its assessment as genuine based on the plant node anomalies. The analysis was carried out by Dr. Sampath Iyengar, a geochemist/mineralogist at his laboratory in San Diego, California (Technology of Materials). This analysis revealed a significant increase in ilmite and mica crystals compared to soil just outside the formation. This was an astonishing result because it is considered that temperatures of 600-800 degrees applied over several hours would be required to cause such a level of crystallization! Obviously such temperatures would have incinerated the plants suggesting that some new, as yet undiscovered, source of energy was at work. Meteorologist James W. Deardorff , professor emeritus at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences, stated in a 2001 Pysiologica Plantarum commentary that the variety, complexity, and artistry of crop circles “represent the work of intelligence”, and not a plasma vortex. Deardorff states, “That is why the hoax hypothesis has been popularly advocated”. However, he points out the anomalous properties in plant stems thoroughly documented by Levengood and Talbott could not possibly have been implemented by hoaxers. Deardorff describes one 1986 British formation in which upper and lower layers of crop were intricately swirled and bent perpendicular to each other in a fashion “…that defies any explanation. People don’t want to face up to this, and scientists have to deal with the ridicule factor”, he said in an interview.
In BLT’s report Semi-Molten Meteoritic Iron Associated with a Crop Formation (1995), Levengood and Burke report on the unusual discovery of a natural iron “glaze” composed of fused particles of meteoritic origin concentrated entirely within a crop formation in England that appeared shortly after the intense Perseid meteor shower in August, 1999. The tiny iron spherules were found fused to the plants as well as in the soil, but only within the confines of the formation itself and not in the plants of the same field surrounding the formation. They hypothesized that a spinning plasma vortex which originated high in the atmosphere which generates a magnetic field due to its rotation, drew in the tiny iron spherules from the upper atmosphere then deposited them in the formation. An independent British investigator, Ronald Ashby, examined the glaze through optical and scanning electron microscopes. He determined that intense heat had been involved (iron melts at 2,700 degrees Farenheit) and administered in millisecond bursts. “After exhaustive inquiry, there is no mundane explanation for the glaze”, he concluded.

A very intriguing report by Michael Chorost and Marshall Dudley associated with Oak Ridge Nuclear labs and Duke University was given in a 1999 paper titled, The Discovery of Thirteen Short-lived Radionuclides in Soil Samples Taken From an English Crop Circle. All of the radio isotopes had a half-life of less than 14 days. In this paper they ruled out several mundane explanations for the presence of these radionuclides, including hoax. In addition, through equations of nuclear physics, the authors show how each radionuclide could have been created by the bombardment of deuterium nuclei to existing soil compounds. It should be pointed out that most genuine crop formations do not contain an unusual content of iron spherules or radioactive compounds, but such anomalies cannot be explained by the efforts of hoaxers as is explained in detail in the complete article.

Visitors to genuine crop formations have reported frequently over years instances of malfunction or failure of electronic devices of all kinds, especially cameras. I also experienced this with my new Canon digital SLR while in the UK butterfly formation of 2007. The display screen froze up and I could not change any settings or activate the shutter for a while until the camera was brought out of the formation. Once it was brought out of the formation it, thankfully, simply started working normally again.

In 2000 Colin Andrews, the original scientific investigator of crop circle formations, conducted a magnetometer survey of several UK crop circles. His data is published on his website which can also be accessed through www.cropcirclewisdom.com. The investigation was done on a formation that consisted of four large circles on a ring that surrounded an ancient tumulus. Ninety-two measurements were taken which shoed intense magnetic fields centered over each of the four circles. The “best fit” results of the magnetic field data indicated that the strong magnetic source would have to be 10-20 meters above or below the ground. He estimated that strong magnetic masses of approximately 2 x 103 weber/m would be required. This would be at least a thousand times stronger than what would be measured if typical Alnico magnets had been buried in the ground.

Although the scientific investigation of the crop circle phenomenon has not been carried out by well funded academic institutions, the evidence that has been obtained is sufficient for any open minded and well informed reader to recognize that the crop circle phenomenon is a real phenomenon and most likely of non-human origin. To continue studying the available crop circle formation research, be sure to visit http://bltresearch.com, http://cropcircleconnector.com, and http://cropcirclewisdom.com.

  1. Rob Lawrence says:

    Excellent article Dr. Horn. Your explanations of the complex research behind crop circles is accessible even for the non-scientifically minded reader. It is true that our current scientific paradigm is an obstacle to certain truths. Thankfully, truth can still be made evident by those brave researchers who work as the new Galileo’s of our time.

  2. why do you need an aristotelian frame-work if this video is showing that humans have no technology of glowing objects that deform crops: https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=n1hM8mcoF-g

    science has something of a high court. show me the proof so i put it in the prison of all time knowledge.

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